Cancer that begins in the urinary system . Cells in the urinary system are called urothelial cells that line the urethra, bladder, uterus , pelvis and some other organs.

Urothelial cancer is also known as transitional cell carcinoma.Shape and size of the cells can be changed. It is the most common type of bladder cancer and 2nd most common type pf kidney cancer.

 

TYPES OF UROTHELIAL CANCER ;

 

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Squamous cell carcinoma  is a rare type of bladder cancer. It range to approx 5% of the cases of bladder cancer.It starts from the irritation in the bladder and occurs in the flat squamous cells which are found in the bladder.

 

ADENOCARCINOMA

Adenocarcinoma is caused due to chronic infection in the urinary system . It accounts to only 1% of the cases of the urothelial cancer.

 

SMALL CELL CARCINOMA

Small cell carcinoma is usually detected at an advance stage of the cancer and due to this it requires combination of radiation therapies and chemotherapies. It becomes very difficult to treat cancer at this stage and small cell carcinoma occurs in the nerve cells of the the urinary bladder.

 

What are the SYMPTOMS of UROTHELIAL CANCER?

 

– Blood in the urine

– frequent urine

– weakness

– pain in the abdomen

– loss of appetite

– weight loss

 

What are the CAUSES of UROTHELIAL CANCER?

 

– Smoking- smoking plays an important role in causing urothelial cancer.

-chemical exposure – exposures to chemicals such as rubbers , dyes, textiles industries could cause bladder cancer.

– urinary tract infection – infection in the urinary bladder can cause bladder cancer.

– family history – if anyone in the family who has had this type of cancer in the family then the chances of the same increases.

– age – people who are aged 70 years and above are most likely to have urothelial cancer.

– Gender – the ratio of men and female in this type of cancer is 3 :1 , this means mens are more likely to have bladder cancer as compared to women.

– Diabetic – side effects of medicines such as medicines of diabetes can cause urothelial cancer.

 

 

DOCTORS –

– ONCOLOGIST

– UROLOGIST

 

 

How to diagnose UROTHELIAL CANCER?

 

– Urine Cytology – In this procedure, a sample of urine is taken and send to lab to test the urine cells to check infection , cancerous or pre cancerous condition. and then further other tests are done.

-CT SCAN – CT scan  is done to see the three dimensional view of the bladder .

-MRI – Magnetic resonance imaging is done to see the detailed images to have a clear view of the cancer cells.

– BIOSPY – Sample is scrapped from the bladder area to examine the cells to see if they are cancerous or non cancerous.

– PET – Positron emission tomography – is done to see the stage of cancer in the bladder and take action accordingly.

– CYSTOSCOPY – In this procedure, a sMAll camera is inserted in the urethra and moved to bladder to remove the tumor. .

 

TREATMENT –

 

– SURGERY – Surgery is done to remove the tumor from the urinary bladder and surrounding area where it is spread.

– CHEMOTHERAPY – IT is done to prevent the cancer cells from spreading to other parts of the body and even to the area.

– RADIATION THERAPY – High powered rays are given to kill cancer cells in the body.

– IMMUNOTHERAPY –  Therapy to improve the immune system of the body and to prevent the production of those hormones that produce cancer cells.

– CYSTECTOMY – This is the most common treatment of urothelial cancer which it inserts a cystscope to remove tumor.

 

 

PREVENTION

 

-Quit smoking

– Proper diet

– Exercise

– Avoid exposure to chemicals

 

MEDICINES

 

– Bavencio

– Keytruda

– OPDIVO

-TECENTRIQ