What is head and neck cancer?

Cancer is a disease in which cells grow out of control. Cancer of the head and neck could be seen in some areas of the neck and throat. Cancer in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands.

There are more than 30 areas where cancer of the neck and head can develop. If cancer of the head and neck travel to other body parts then it is called metastasis cancer. It usually begins in the lines of surfaces of the head and neck.

TYPES of head and neck cancer

- Lip and oral cavity cancer

This type of cancer forms in the lips, gums, behind the wisdom teeth, or cheekbones.

Laryngeal Cancer

This type of cancer is found in the voice box, which contains the vocal cords attached to the top of the windpipe.

Nasopharyngeal Cancer

This is found in the tissues of the nasopharynx, the upper part of the throat behind the nose.

Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

This type of cancer is found in the sinuses or the hollow part of the nose.

Salivary Gland cancer

This type of cancer is found in the saliva production gland under the tongue below the jawbones.

Pharynx

This kind of cancer is found in the throat that begins behind the nose.

Hypopharynx

Cancer is found in the lower part of the pharynx

Oropharynx

Cancer is found in the center of the throat below the mouth.

SYMPTOMS OF HEAD AND NECK CANCER

- Change in the voice, harsh or coarse voice

- ear pain

- throat pain

- difficult to swallow food

- lump in the throat

- weight loss

- sore throat

- nose blockage

- deadness of body part

- jaw torment

-blood in the saliva

- exhaustion

- teeth extrication

CAUSES OF NECK AND HEAD CANCER

- Consuming TOBACCO could cause head and neck cancer

- SMOKING can be the major cause to cause throat cancer

- ALCOHOL

- Infection with HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV)

- Exposure to harmful chemicals such as asbestos

- Lack of nutrient diet

- Men are more prone to head and neck cancer as compared to women

- Family history could be the reason to cause head and neck cancer as it increases the chances to spread in the family

- poor hygiene of the teeth

- radiation exposure to the neck and head could cause cancer

DOCTORS

- ONCOLOGIST

specializes in the treatment of cancer

- OTOLARYNGOLIST

Specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat.

DIAGNOSIS

- ENDOSCOPY

Examination by putting a tube-like instrument inside the throat with a camera

- LARYNGOSCOPY

Done to examine the vocal cords

- BIOPSY

The sample is taken as small tissue from the affected part

- MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)

MRI is done to see the spread of cancer to other body parts.

- CT SCAN

CT SCAN is done to detect its spread to lymph nodes

- POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

PET is done to see the stage of cancer in the body.

TREATMENT

- CHEMOTHERAPY

Killing of cancer cells by giving medicines to the body

- LARYNGECTOMY

Remove of a part of the voice box having cancer or even all of it

- PHARYNGECTOMY

Remove the affected part of the throat

- SURGERY

Removal of the affected part of throat or head or neck through surgery

- RADIATION THERAPY

High radiation rays are given to kill cancer cells from the body

PREVENTION

- Quit smoking

- Quit alcohol

- Quit tobacco

- Avoid exposure to radiations

- Proper diet

- Exercise

- Fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet

MEDICINES

- Carbotero ( CARBOPLATIN)

- Docetero ( DOCETAXEL)

- Keytruda (PEMBROLIZYNTAB)

- Opdivo ( NIVOLUMAB)