What is Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer is the uncontrollable growth of cells in the prostate gland. The Prostate Gland in men is responsible for the formation of seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperms. Prostate Cancer is one of the ten top leading cancers in India. It is more common in men of age 45 and above. 

Types

The type of Prostate Cancer depends upon the type of cancer cells, their location, and growth rate. Following are the most common types of Prostate Cancer.

  • Acinar Adenocarcinoma- It is the most common type of cancer growing in the Lungs and Prostate. It is diagnosed when cuboidal or columnar-shaped malignant cells form tubules in the neoplastic tissue. 

  • Ductal Adenocarcinoma- It is a rare variant of Prostate Cancer. It is more aggressive than Acinar Adenocarcinoma.

  • Transitional Cell (or Urothelial) Cancer- It is a type of cancer that typically occurs in the urinary system. It can start in the Prostate and spread into the entrance of the Bladder and the surrounding tissues.

  • Squamous Cell Cancer- It is a rare tumor, but aggressive. It has a median post-diagnosis survival of approximately 14 months. 

  • Small Cell Prostate Cancer- It is a form of neuroendocrine cancer. It has a median post-diagnosis survival of approximately 1--2 years. 

Stages 

The stage of Prostate Cancer tells the patient and the doctor what to expect further. It also makes things clear and gives relevant information about its root cause and treatment. Following are the stages of Prostate Cancer.

  • Stage 0- At this stage, precancerous cells are present. However, they only affect a smaller area. Such cells grow slowly in the same region.

  • Stage 1- Usually, Prostate Cancer in this stage cannot be felt. Commonly, the cancer cells look like healthy cells. 

  • Stage 2- The tumor in the stage is found only in the Prostate. Usually, PSA levels are medium to low. Prostate Cancer here is small but maybe growing rapidly. 

  • Stage 3- Cancer now starts spreading to nearby tissues and the seminal vesicles. The level of PSA becomes high. 

  • Stage 4- At this stage, Prostate Cancer has spread to lymph nodes, bones, and other parts of the body. 

Statistics and Prone Areas

Cancer in the Prostate Gland occurs more often in men in North America and Northern Europe.

 

Rank 

Country 

Per 100,00 Men

1

Guadeloupe

189.1

2

Martinique

158.4

3

Ireland

132.5

4

Barbados

129.3

5

Estonia

109.9

 

History

J. Adams, a surgeon at The London Hospital, discovered the first case of Prostate Cancer by histological examination. He noted it as “a very rare disease”. However, Prostate Cancer has now become a major health problem all over the world. This sudden and huge increase in its incidence is due to some environmental and dietary effects.

Risk Factors

Prostate Cancer is not yet linked to any definite risk factor or cause. However, certain factors can be connected to Prostate Cancer, to initiate its prevention and treatment.

Age 

It is most commonly diagnosed in men at the age of 65 years and above. It is quite rare in men below the age of 45. 

Family History

If you have a close relative (such as a brother or father who has had Prostate Cancer), your risk of developing Prostate Cancer is high.

Genetic Factor

Inherited genes and features including changes to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Also, many researchers all over the world are looking for other genes that are responsible for Prostate Cancer. 

Other Common Factors

  • Sexually transmitted infections

  • Diet

  • Inflammation of the Prostate

  • Exposure to chemicals 

  • Hormone levels

  • Eating habits

  • Vasectomy

  • Smoking